• Sat. Jun 15th, 2024

General Information About Jammu & Kashmir

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  • General Information About Jammu & Kashmir

* Kehwa / Kahwa- Kashmiri Black Tea
* Houseboat – Floating Hotels
* Kangir & Pharan
* Kashmiri Proverbs

Kashmiri Kahwa is probably of Turkish origins.
“The word ‘coffee’ is a modified form of the Turkish word ‘kahveh’ which is derived from the Arabic word Kahwa (meaning: ‘exiting the spirit’).”
Did you know that Almonds are not always the main ingredient in a Kahwa?
Here’s some more related brew from an old article that appeared in The Hindu.
Okay, so what’s the relation between Turkey and Kashmir?
We must remember that Kashmir one of the important trading centres along the Silk Route. A lot more than just goods were exchanged there. Kahwa is probably the outcome of one of these exchanges.
Why do we Pandits drink this Muslim poison of choice and apparently, we enjoy it immensely ?
What type of a socio-religious mixture was brewing in Kashmir?
Found this in an old Edition of an online Kp magazine.
Kashmiris must have been one of the earliest addicts to this brew in the subcontinent. Tea, as we know it today was introduced by the British tea companies in India. But Kashmiris used to get their stuff long before that from China through Tibet. Later, it used to be imported from Shungla via Bombay. That is why in Kashmir it is still called Bombay Chai. But this tea is the green untreated variety of tea. Its brew is called Kahwa. No milk is added to it. It is sweetened with sugar. Often, Dalchini (cinnamon), Elaichi (cardamom), Badam (almonds), and sometimes a little Kesar (saffron) are added to it to give taste and flavor.
The tea taken with salt and milk, is called Sheeri Chai (perhaps adaptation from Ladakh and Tibet). It is very popular among Muslims and to an extent among Hindus. Hindus however prefer Kahwa to Sheer Chai
Tea is prepared in a special vessel called Samawar. It is a pot in which tea is made by burning charcoal in the small chimney at its center, having a seive at the bottom. The ash is collected in the space below the seive. There is a nozzle outlet for pouring the tea, hot into the cup. Russians also have a Samowar, but it slightly differs in looks. Hindus used to take tea in a bronze cup called Khos, while Muslims prefer Chinpyala, the cup made of china clay. The Samawar used by Muslims is made of copper while that used by Hindus is made of brass.
Hindus eat their food in a Thal, which earlier used to be of bronze. Muslims prefer copper bowl (with tin lining). At feasts, Muslims are served four persons in one big copper plate called Traami.”

HouseBoat :: Many tourists are attracted to Srinagar by the charm of staying on a houseboat, which provides the unique experience of living on the water in a cedar-paneled elegant bedroom, with all the conveniences of a luxury hotel. Srinagar’s thousand or so houseboats are moored along sections of the Dal and Nagin Lakes and river Jhelum, each decorated fancifully and named romantically and even whimsically.
Like hotels, houseboats vary in degree of luxury and have been accordingly graded by the Department of Tourism. A luxury houseboat, like a luxury hotel, has fine furniture, good carpets, and modern bathroom fittings, while the ‘D category’ (the lowest category) of houseboats, like low-budget hotels, is spartanly furnished. Like hotels too, houseboats vary widely in their locations. Some overlook the main road, others look out onto lotus gardens and yet others face tiny local markets and villages, all right in the middle of the lake! All houseboats, regardless of category, have highly personalized service. Not only is there always a “houseboy” for every boat, but the owner and his family are never far away. The cost per day of hiring a houseboat includes all meals and free rides from the houseboat to the nearest jetty and back, as no houseboat on the lakes is directly accessible from the banks.
Every standard houseboat provides a balcony in the front, a lounge, dining room, pantry and 3 or more bedrooms with attached bathrooms. All houseboats not moored to the bank of the river or lakes provide a shikara as a free service from the houseboat to the nearest Ghat (jetty). Virtually every houseboat in Srinagar has been provided with a municipal water connection.

Kangir & Pharan
Kangri: Willow basket containing clay pot, for carrying hot coals
Pharan: Pherans are made of tweed which covers the whole body
Willow’s work has a history of thousand years in Kashmir. The name kundal the most important part of kangri made of clay around which the willow sticks are woven is mentioned in the history when king Avantiwarman 855-883(Kashmiri encyclopedia refers part 3rd) and his engineers were busy establishing small villages on the banks of Jhelum. This is mentioned even in Kalhanas’ Rajtarangni. Some say that it is entirely indigenous, others say it is an import from soviet central Asia. One colorful theory is that when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered Kashmir the people were immensely strong and well-built. The only way he could subjugate them was by making them slothful. He did so by forcing the population to wear woolen- clock and to carry around kangri under the gowns.
In the period of Maharaja Pratap Singh in 1885-1925, its first institution was established in 1914, with Andrew as its first principal who hailed from England. He ordered willow trees from England which were planted in Baghi-Dilawar Khan, Gander bal, banks of Anchar Lake, and Baderwah in Jammu. Kangris are mostly made in Charar-e-Sharief, Islamabad, Bandipora, Zainagir, Magam and each area has its own identification and specification in this field.
When the first sign of chill is in the air, the great clusters of Kangris began to make their appearance in shops. In Srinagar, one of autumn’s most typical sights is that of dozens of Kangris tied to motorcycles or piled into skiffs to be taken home. The Kangri, an invention that dates back at least 400 years is still seen as the best protection against the cold and not only among the older generation. The young man roaring through Srinagar’s crowded bazaars on his high-powered motorbikes will use a Kangri just as naturally as his grandmother at home.
In common Kashmiri houses, a kangri is incomplete without pheran which covers the entire body of a person during winters, put a small fire of charcoal in the kangri and enjoy the snowfall and chill in Kashmir from October to March. Pherans are made of tweed, dark brown and grey being the most favored colors of this distinctive Kashmiri dress.
Every man, woman, the child wears a pheran during the chilly winter months due to a sudden drop in the temperature. They are worn over the latest styles of acid-washed jeans with as much ease as over the salwar. The fashion-conscious add a collar here and piping there to the basic design and the manual worker will hatch one side if his pheran over one shoulder for freedom of movement.
Women wear a modified version of this pheran. Women’s pherans are knee length, and the velvet ones are profusely embroidered in a real silver thread at the throat, cuffs, and hem. It just become fashionable for ladies to carry handbags and purses- before that, the pocket of the pheran served the purpose quite well.
Kangris are gifted to newlywed brides as a special gift for their first coming winter and used by Kashmiri women as a good omen to celebrate auspicious occasions by burning fragmented seeds called isband in a kangri. With the arrival of spring on this special day Kangri is broken to welcome the new season, and to bid good-bye to chilly cold called chilla kalan, chilly khurd, and chill bacha.
Kangris made in Kashmir are even accessible in different parts of India where Kashmiri s has settled down. They use it as a need also in tradition in their customs. With the passage of time the cost of common Kangri has increased as in the sixties it costs ten annas and now not less than seventy rupees. Kashmir is known for its wazwan, vegetables, fruits, vegetables, handicraft, etc, but the Kangri of Kashmir is and will remain always as the identity of Kashmiri culture and heritage.

Some of these proverbs/sayings are from great Sufi’s/Saints of Kashmir like Sheikh Noorudin Wali, Lala Ded, etc.

“Aen saenz kolai khodayas hava-li’ ”
God takes care of our handicaps.
“Akh ti akh gae kah. ”
Unity is strength.

“Akh xotum ti’ sa-s gow koeli.”
To get penalized for the misdeed of others.

“Alan hindi khaera-t wanganan ti sag. ”
To get indirect benefits.

“Aek sinz droekh ti’ bae sund gizah ”
Leftover of some could be a hearty meal for others.

“Aez dohi’ za-mut ”
Being exceptionally lucky It is applicable to persons who are in right situations at the right time.
“An manah ti’ kar fana-, rachhun chhui bod gonah”
Get a mound Expend abound Sustentation is chastely unsound. A proverb in a metrical form deserves a metrical interpretation.
Ak’ tsAT sum tI sa:s gov k>li
One man cut the bund/barrage, and a thousand people fell into the river.
Ak’ sund kAsiya:n beyi sund gIza:
One person’s vomit is another’s food.
Someone lives on the leftovers of others.

Ak’ sund daza:n a:b, tI beyi sund nI daza:n ti:l
One man can burn water, whereas another cannot even burn oil.
A matter of luck.

Akis daza:n dA:r tI b’a:kh chus vushIna:v:n athI
One man’s beard is on fire, and another man warms his hands on it.
To take advantage of someone’s misery.

Ach ongji Thukni
To strike the eyes with fingers.
To tease someone.

Ach peTh nI mAch zIrna:vIn’
Not to bear a fly on someone’s eye.
To take good care of someone.

Ach vatshI tI ga:shI rusI
May your eyes be opened but see nothing (A curse).
To turn a blind eye to something.

Achan paci ph’ur gatshun
To turn one’s eyes away from someone.
To forget someone’s help.

AD’ la:r AD’ da:r
Half at Lar and half at Dar.
Unmanageably scattered property or assets.
Scattered relations.

Ati: sha:h tI Ati: gada:h
A king for a moment, and a beggar soon after
One’s fortune can change very fast.

Ath’ ba:nas kh’on tI Ath’ ba:nas charun
To eat out of a vessel and then defile it.
To receive someone’s hospitality and then slander him.

AdIr zAT h’uh aga:di gatshun
To stick (to something) like a wet cloth.
To be very adamant. To keep on insisting.
To pester someone.

An’ sInz k>lay kh>da:yas hava:iI
A blind man’s wife is God’s keeping.

Anim s>y, vAvIm s>y, iAjim s>y pa:nIsIy
I brought the nettle, sowed the nettle, and then the nettle stung me.
To be affected by one’s own deeds.

Anis mush ha:vin’, na chu g>na:h tI na sava:b
To show one’s fist to a blind man is neither a sin nor a virtue.
Advice is lost on stupid people.

Andraman grand karIn’
To count (someone’s) intestines.
To know all secrets about someone.

Ar’ a:yi sA:ri: tI or gav nI ka:~h
All people came (were born) in good health, but none left (died) healthy.

A:b panun ma:sho:kh
A man loves his own shortcomings.

A:shina:v gav po:shina:v
A relative remains a relative, as long as relations are maintained.
You should not take relatives for granted.

aki kanI bo:zun tI beyi kanI tra:vun
To let it in by one ear, and let it out from the other.
To hear but not to act.

akh asun gav madI vasun, b’a:kh asun gav kharas khasun
One kind of laugh is to come down from high horse and another to get on an ass.

akh kara:n tachI bachI, b’a:kh diva:n vachI vachI
One person earns his living after working very hard, and another beats his chest (out of envy).
A person does not appreciate the efforts of others, when he is (merely) jealous.

akh gav be:chun beyi hAs’tis khAsith
One is to beg, and that too riding on an elephant.
To ask for alms and also to maintain status.
Trying to be a dignified beggar.

akh go:mut yi:rI tI vi:ri manga:n Tang
A drowning man asks for pears from the willow tree.
A confused person. One who doesn’t know what is good for him.

akh tI akh gAyi ka:h
One plus one make eleven.
In unity there is strength. Two heads are better than one.

akh buDI tI meThI, b’a:kh buDI tI TeThI
One man is old and sweet, another is old and bitter.
Some people age gracefully others go sour.

akh vakur tI beyi trakur
First, one is deformed, and second, proud too.
One problem over the other.
A pimple has grown on the ulcer.

azmo:vmut gav pathar po:vmut
A person who has been tried is (as good as) prostrated (won over).

athI tshoT tI zevi z’u:Th
With short hands and long tongue.
One who merely talks, but doesn’t really work.

athIva:s chu mohrI sa:s
Unity is equal to a thousand golden coins.

an mana: kar phana: rachun chuy boD g>na:
Bring a mound and finish it. It is a great sin to save.
A spendthrift. One who does not think about tomorrow. Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow you may die.

anIhA:ren arIma:n, kAr’mit’ pashe:ma:n
The bachelors crave to get married, and the married ones regret why they got married.
Marry in haste and repent at leisure.

apzis koTh’ kati.
The lie doen’t have knees to stand on.
A lie doesn’t have a foot to stand on.
A lie doesn’t last for long.

alIkulis tulIkul bana:vun
To make a mulberry tree out of a pumpkin plant.
To make a mountain out of a mole hill.

alan hIndi da:di va:~gnan sag
When pumpkins are watered, brinjals also get watered.
Some small people are often benefited when the benefit is given to the big ones.

asma:nas sI:th’ buz’ buz’ ga:DI kheni
To roast fish on sky and to eat them.
To talk big.
To think too much of oneself.

a:gI kara:n ne:thIr tI parzun nI ma:na:n
The master gets married, but the servant does not accept it.
How does it matter if reality is ignored?

a:bas andar krAnD
A basket in water.
To thrive under patronage.

a:men Ta:ken ti:l phe:run
To pour oil in raw clay pots.
To waste one’s efforts on a naive person.

a:rIm’ kAd nI muj, tI pheki:ran do:rus halam
The gardener had not yet dug out the radish, when the beggar held the
alms-bowl in front of him.
To ask for the chicken before it is hatched.

a:li ditso:n ta:li ga’v, z>vi korun l’av tI l’av
Ali greased his head with ghee, but the lice licked it up.
Money in the hands of a spendthrift.

a:v tI s>nIsund tI gav tI ga:suv
If it comes, it is golden; if it doesn’t, it was made of grass.
Welcome an opportunity as it comes, call it a trifle if it doesn’t.
Neutral attitude.

Ada’-y mael hean
To get unnecessarily involved in squirmishes.

a:sun chu hechIna:va:n na a:sun chu mandIcha:va:n
Prosperity teaches one, and poverty puts one to shame.
Prosperity improves one’s personality, adversity cripples it.

Buthis rab muthni’ yin
To lose self esteem, or honor in a society, as a result of some gross misdeed. (This is especially applicable to a gentle and well respected person who is not the actual offender but the shame reflects on him due to social, cultural or a moral anomaly committed by any family member or a close relative.)
bA:tsan yi:za: tI p>tlen pu:za:
The members of the family are in distress, but the idols are worshipped.
To ignore one’s family and to worship stone idols.

baji kani talIy cha l>kIT kAn’ vepa:n
A small stone can be hidden under a big one.

batI gardan gAyi bAD gardan.
The path to heart lies through one’s stomach.

batI natI bata:s, chiTh naTI atla:s
A poor man with rich desires.
If wishes were horses beggars would ride.

bandI chu bashar
To err is human.

bandIy chu be:sabar
A human being is quite impatient.

babI buDtam tI khIdmatha: kartam
O father, grow old and serve me.
When youngsters expect their elders to serve them.

bi:mI ros shur gav la:kmi ros gur
The child who is not afraid of anyone is like a horse without a bridle.
Spare the rod and spoil the child.

beka:ras chi tre ka:r
An idle person has three tasks: sleeping, eating and quarreling.

beyi sund do:d chuy be:ma:ne:
yas Akis bAnith a:v suy za:ne:
Another person’s pain is meaningless. He only knows who suffers.
Only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches.

boch gatshi nI n’un va:zIva:n, tI non gatshi nI n’un baza:zi va:n
The hungry should not be taken to a feast, and a naked person should not be taken to a cloth shop.
It is difficult to control desire of someone who is in great need.

bro:r vuchith gatshi bishtI pho:run
On seeing a cat, one should be able to utter bishtI (for driving it away).
One must be courageous enough to show displeasure in presence of the person concerned, and not in his absence.

ch>n’a: T>n’a: karun
To enjoy at any cost.
To spend lavishly and not to think about future.

cA:nis ha:kas chunI pa:kh dinuk ha:jath
There is no need to cook your swedes.
A perfect worker.

chAn’ mAT cha vaza:n
Empty vessels make much noise.

chAl’ chAl’ z’un za:lun
To burn wood after washing it.
To be over careful.

cham chiTh tI cha ma: kA:~si
I have a printed cloth, which no one else has.
To show off. A dandy. A snob.

cha:nI kIj
The carpenter’s wooden wedge.
To keep some lacuna in the work.

cha:v yith batI, tI da:v yith kathI
Rice tastes good when it is properly cooked, and talking is good when opportunity is ripe.
Strike when the iron is hot.

ch>kas nu:n tra:vun
To rub salt on the wound.
To add insult to injury.

Da-ra- kameu- phatvukh? pan ni- pa’-en ”
To be deserted by own people.
dab chunI kA:~si hund bab
The fall is nobody’s sire.
Anyone can fall or slip at any moment.

damas sI:t’ chu namaska:r
As long as one is rich, one commands.
“Good day” to rich person.

darya:vIK’ malakh gAnzrIn’
To count the waves of the river.
To attempt an impossible task.
To waste time in futile pursuits.

di thaph tI ni dasta:r
Catch him, and take his turban.

dushman nay chuy pitur ti chuyna:
If you don’t have an enemy, don’t you have a cousin?

du:ri du:ri chu marIts me:Tha:n, nakhI nakhI chu na:bad TeTha:n
From a distance even black pepper becomes sweets, near at hand sugar becomes bitter.
Distance lends enchantment, and familiarity breeds contempt.

d>das kAnD’ tsa:rIn’
Searching thorns in the milk.
To criticize without justification.

d>n sala:h tren va:hvela:
Agreement with two people, lamentation with three.
Two are a company, and three are not.
Two make a company, three make a row.

Danda-nas vonukh marith ti asa-n chhu
It is rather impossible to change an established image

Daeb sund a-qbat nana-n i-z doh
Try as one may wish to perform deceptively, but his intentions will surface, at certain point and time. Alternately , the saying goes that you may fool all the people all the time, and you may fool some people some of the time but that you CANNOT FOOL ALL THE PEOPLE ALL THE TIME
DAmbinen kong
To put saffron in cooking sheep’s paunch.
A wastage of resources or talent.

dAhi vIhIr’ dashIha:r
The festival of Dash-har after ten years.
Long awaited happiness in a family.
Once in a blue moon.

Fae-z ga-ras bae-z garas
To outwit a swindler
gagra:yan chunI ru:d
The thundering does not cause rain.
Barking dogs seldom bite.
Empty vessels make much noise.

gabi buthi ra:mI hu:n
A sheep in appearance, but a wolf at heart.
A wolf in sheep’s clothing.

garI vanday garI sa:sa:, barI nebar ne:ray nI za:~h
O home, I would sacrifice a thousand houses on you, and would never step out of the door.
No place like home.
East or west, home is the best.

gari gaTi tI mAshi:di tso:~g
Darkness in the home, but a light in the mosque.
Darkness in the hearth and light in the church.

gari ti ha:kh, pari ti ha:kh, na:khay zuva: gari: dra:kh
The same swede (a green vegetable) in my home, the same in another’s house. O myself, you should have not come out of your own house.
When one doesn’t get better food at other’s place.

gursas mA:l, tsoD heth patI kani
One wants to have buttermilk, but has hidden the pot (which has been brought for it) behind one’s back.
A person who wants to have something, but is feeling shy in asking for it.

gu:r’ gari cha: votsh ra:va:n?
Is a calf ever lost in a milk vendors’ house?

g>DI gav pa:nas, patI gA:r za:nas
First for self, then for the stranger.
Charity begins at home.

Gursas ma’-l ti’ xod heth pati’ pati’
To adopt an indirect approach to reach your goal

Hati’ ho-ni kheti’ zang
Unwanted meddling in affairs which could prove harmful.
haTi khash tI h>~gni mi:Th
To cut someone’s throat and kiss his chin.
To show affection outwardly and to harm when an opportunity arises.

han han gAjiyo:, panIn’ ha:n nI tsAjiyo:
Though one has reduced to not

jandInIy cha z>vI a:sa:n
Lice flourishes in rags.

Kael sund bo-l bo-sh za-ni kael sund mo-l mo-j
How many hopes and fears, how many ardent wishes and anxious apprehensions are twisted together in the threads that connect the parent with the child! ” They even interpret their dumb language.” Alternatively, it could be said that people enduring woes of similar nature understand each other better.
kIji peTh ka:jIvaTh, vilinji peTh v>khul
A pestle upon a peg, and a mortar upon a clothes line.
Unorganized system. Impossible things.

kAmi:nas khIdmath chi zAmi:nas cho:b
To serve a mean person, is to beat the earth.
To serve a mean person is an unprofitable business.

kathi kotsh, vati pakIvIn’
Bribe for a word, and road toll for the walking
Misadministration and corruption.

kani kapas kaDIn’
To obtain cotton from the stone.
An impossible task.

kanas batI ladun
To stuff the ear with food.
To over feed someone.
Advice to a stupid person is wasted.

kandas tI muji kunuy s>:d
The sugar-candy and the raddish taste alike.
All the same to a person whether good or bad.
When good and bad persons are not distinguished.

kalI peThI’ sA:la:b
A flood over one’s head.
Deep in trouble.

kalas peTh gA:r’ phuTIrA:vith khen’
Breaking water nuts on someone’s head and eating them.
To make living with difficulty.
To keep the wolf off the door with difficulty.

ka:kun ha:put, me tra:ya:v tAm’ tro:vus nI
Father’s bear. I left him but he did not let me free.
To take up a quarrel with someone and to be in more trouble.

ka:v chajo:k sati sa:bni tas tsol nI panun krehn’a:r
A crow was washed with soap several times, but its own black colour did not go.

ka:vI yenivo:l
A crows wedding party.
A bad wedding arrangement.

ka:van hecha:v kakIv sund pakun, panInuy pakun moThus
A crow learnt to walk like a partridge and forgot its own style of walking.
Useless imitation.

ka:han ka:h vatI
Eleven persons take eleven paths.
Pulling in diverse directions.

ka:han ga:v rA:vmIts
Eleven persons have lost their cow.
A great loss, but many to share it.
Too many masters cannot manage a simple thing.
Disunity in a household.
Too many cooks spoil the broth.

kun’ zin’hAr chanI gaji ti daza:n
A single log of wood does not burn even in an oven (fireplace).
A single person cannot do much.

kuni gabi muTh’ lej
A vessel full of soybeans for a single sheep.
One who does not share his resources with others.
A pampered child.

kunis po:sha:n sA:ri:, kun nI po:sha:n kA:~si
Everyone takes an advantage of a single person but the single person cannot face anyone.

kulis khAsith g>DI rab
To climb a tree and smear mud on the trunk to make it slippery.
To engage someone for some task and then back out.

ku:ri: vonImay, noshi tsI bo:z
O daughter, I’m telling you. O daughter-in-law, listen to it.
To communicate indirectly.
Message communicated to one is meant for someone else.

kobis lath dava:
A kick works as a treatment to a hunch backed person.

ko:ri hund batI gav gA:v hund guh
The food eaten at one’s daughter’s place is like eating cow dung.

k>kIr tacha:n tI pu:t’ hecha:n
The hen scratches and the chicken learns.
The young ones imitate elders.

k>kath nay tI kAn’ kath k’a:?
If it is not a gossip, why to say it in someone’s ear (or whisper)?
Secrets are not narrated loudly.

k>karan m>khtI chakun
To scatter pearls for the cocks.
To waste good advice on the foolish.

k>kras kuni: zang
There is only one leg to the cock.
An adamant person.

k>li graza:n kavay chakh? a:gur vuchith
“O river, why are you roaming? “On seeing my source.”
The importance of background.

kranjili kranjili po:n’ sa:run
To carry water in baskets.
A futile exercise.
To waste energy.

khIzmath/khIdmath cha azmath
Service is greatness

khamithe: gur tI khama:n cha gunI
It could be genuine for horses to complaint, but (instead of horses) complaints are made by the load sacks (or saddle bags).

khar k’a: za:ni za:phra:nIc kadIr?
An ass does not know the importance of saffron.
A stupid person does not know the importance of quality.

kharas go:r a:prun
To feed jaggery to an ass.
To give advice to a stupid person.

kha:nImA:lis nI ko:j tI parzanan mimuz
No breakfast for the dear one, but a luncheon for the strangers.

khenI kheva:n tI venI DA:l’ DA:l’
Someone is eating his meals, as though picking vena (a kind of green) plant.
Eating but pretending as if one doesn’t want to eat.
Mannerisms in eating to show off.

khenI manz v>kus
Unnecessary conflict while eating.
An unnecessary quarrel in the family.

khemas kha:r tI ho:ras nI ha:r
I will usurp his kharwar and will not pay him a penny.
A selfish person.

kh>jI b’u:Th va:n tI lejav sa:n
The Khwaja (shopkeeper) opened a shop alongwith all his pots (which are empty).

kh>da:yi sInz khAr tI nA:ydI sInz tsheph
God has given the scab, and the barber causes a wound (in it).
One misery followed by another.
Calamity followed by catastrophe.
Misfortunes never come alone.

kh>ran nI khra:v tI padma:n na:vI
Not even wooden shoes to wear for her feet, yet she is called Padmini (a queen).

Ka-van manz po-shnu-l
A splendor amongst the smeared. Poshnool is a bird and is called Indian Oriole. Kaw is interchangeably used for rook, raven or common crow. Poshnools are gorgeous in appearance and have a bright plumage which is predominantly golden yellow with sparse black mottling. Their notes are mellifluous. Kaws are least attractive, produce shrill notes and symbolically infamous because of their parasitical tendencies. As far as I can perceive, this proverb could be attributed to a person with exceptional qualities and sagacity in an otherwise ill reputed family, clan or a group. The family connection was required to symbolize sparse black mottling of poshnools.
Kat’as ti’ kokras kuni- shaba-hat karin
To weigh everyone in the same scale. In other words it suggests a lost sense of discrimination between good and bad.
Lo-ri paet’h saruf ta-run
To cheat a person.
log natI jog a:v pot phi:rith
The stupid fellow could not do the work and returned empty handed.

l>kca:r chuy m>kja:r
Childhood is freedom.

l>ti kh>tI lot chu nanIvo:ruy
The lightest is to be bare footed.
No property, no worries.

Mog’ul di-shith gaxhi fa-rsi pho-run, byo-r di-shith gaxhi bishti’ pho-run
While in Rome do as the Romans do.

Mali’ sinz ga’-nt’h hala-l karin
To authenticate in authenticity for selfish motives, especially by convincing people through concocted or misrepresented parables.
Mu-sas kappas vanen
Trading tricks with the trick master, from whom the art is learnt.
me:ko: ni:ki: kar, bad labi pa:nay
O good man, do good; the wicked will receive his own due.
Be good and do good.

mA:j kara:n “ku:r’ ku:r’, ku:r kara:n “rA:ni rA:ni”
The mother keeps on caring for her daughter, while the daughter keeps on craving for her husdand.

“mA:j vohva:n chumnI ka:~h.”
“potrI vati peTh beh.”
“O mother, no one abuses me.”
“Go and sit on the roadside.”
Ask for problems and you will get them.

matev An’ n>sh s> ti dra:yi mAtsIy
The family of madmen brought a daughter-in-law, she also turned out to be mad.
Birds of the same feather flock together.

manTini leji pa:~zuv
To cook six pounds in a pot which has capacity for three pounds only.

mandn’an sha:m gatshun
To turn the afternoon into an evening.
To be caught in a complex problem.
A hard blow.

ma:ji nI lakcI, tI se:ta:ras gila:ph
The mother hasn’t a piece of cloth to put on, but the sitar has a covering.
Inappropriate expenditure.

ma:ji hund nI bo:y, ko:ri hund ma:m
If one is not mother’s brother, how can he be the daughter’s (maternal) uncle?
Relations are to be maintained and not just imposed.
Strained relations.

ma:li muphut tI dili be:rAham
Property by gift and a heart without mercy.
One does not value items received free or in gift.

muphtuk shara:b chu ka:zev co:mut
The free liquor has been taken even by religious judges.
Free things, good or bad, are accepted by all.

nAv kath cha navan d>han
A new matter lasts only for nine days.
Nine days wonder.
Things are forgotten fast.

nAsi:bI chu ha:put
The fortune is (like) a bear.
Impossible tasks are accomplished by good luck.

na tren manz, na truvIha:n manz
Neither in three, nor in the thirteen.
One who doesn’t have any importance.

name:da:nam chuy rAhti-ja:nam
Ignorance is bliss

na:gI ga:DI, vachini hala:l, tI kheni hara:m
The fish in the spring are lawful to look at but unlawful to eat.
One can look at the beauty at a distance but cannot enjoy it.

na:da:nas nAsiyath karIn’ go:ya: ki panzen nu:n d’un
Giving advice to a stupid person is like feeding salt to monkeys.
Good advice is lost on stupid persons.

na:ni rus shur gav pa:ni rus da:ni
A child without a grandmother is like paddy without water.

Nosh a-yi ra-th, zan a’s yaeth
Brief interlude between events. This phrase refers to people who wouldn’t like to stay away from their domain for long, considering the fact that their “object of interest” could be influenced by others in their absence.
na:rI dra:v s>n h’uh
Like gold which has come out of the fire.
Well tested proposition.

na:v thod tI nasti zod
The name is high, but the person has a hole in the nose.
Even the great ones have flaws.

nendIr chay mo:tIn’ beni
The sleep is the sister of the death.
One is totally unaware of what happens during sleep.

Na-ri’ viz keu-r khanun
Chalking out preventive measures when emergency is warranted
on k’a: za:ni pron batI
A blind person doesn’t know what the white rice looks like.
A blind man is no judge of colors.
A stupid person doesn’t know what is good or bad.

o~glas peTh bAnglI
A bungalow (is constructed) upon an inch of ground.
A baseless matter which does not last for long.
To build castles in the air.

Panien koeki’r nai bad a-si bae sindis ma’ris kya-zi tra-vi t’hu-l
To have an enemy within.
Paneh tali’ daenj, ti’ daenji tal’ pan
To indulge in evasive tactics.
Pilem na tae xaeki gea-m
People pretend to dislike what they cannot get.
Pan ni vodi chha- kae-nsi mas ko-smut?
An impossible task.
Pra-xan doed loroe a-sun
To be a green horn.
Pan nis dasta-ras gaxhi thaph kari’n
One should strive to maintain one’s honor. The author of this proverb has aptly symbolized Dastar (headgear) to honor. Dastar is a precariously positioned cladding on our head. Undoubtedly, it’s likened to honor because of it’s preferential place and frailty as well. Extreme caution is warranted to maintain it’s entrenchment, as it can be easily dislodged by the slightest blow.
paknas gatshi a:sun Takun
For walking it is important to have something to eat.
Those who eat can take up physical work.

panIn’ athI chi palza:n
One’s won hands help one.
One who has done good to others is always helped by them.

panIni gari ha:kh vugrI, beyi sIndi gari p>la:v
Simple vegetables and rice at one’s own home is as good as a delicious dish at someone else’s place.

panIni bebi mIshIk h’on
To smell one’s own bosom.
Self introspection.

panInuy rath pa:nIsIy math
To rub one’s own blood on oneself.
To do any work for the benefit of one’s self.

panun muhim chu ha:va:n pa:nay vath
Each problem is solved in its own way.
Whenever there is a problem there is way out.

panun yazath chu pa:nas athi
One’s honor is in one’s own hands.
One can oneself earn and maintain one’s respect.

pashmi:nas cha narmi:
The pashmina is soft.
Good people are gentle.

pilis na tI tsoki: ga:s
One could not reach the fruit, and therefore he said that they were sour.
The grapes are sour.

pish kAr’ g>na:h, vagvis co:b
The flea sinned, but the reed-mat got the beating.
One person commits a crime, and another gets punishment for it.

pu:chukh ti nay tsolukh ti na:?
If you couldn’t win, why didn’t you run away?
If one cannot face a situation, one should give it up.

potrI bochi, hu:n k>chi
To crave for a child, and to hold a dog to one’s lap.

pormut chu gormut
An educated person is a nicely cut (stone).
An educated person is well groomed.

praya:gIc bu:n’,na thada:n na baDa:n
The chinar of Prayag, neither does it become tall nor big.
A child who doesn’t grow.

phari tsu:ras chu da:ri konD lo:r
A thorn is struck in the beard of one who stole a fried fish.
A thief has a guilty conscience.

phal kuluy chu nemith
The tree laden with fruit always bows low.
A great person is always polite.

phirith pheran tshunun.
To put a pheran (a Kashmiri loose dress) inside out.
The guilty blaming the accuser.

rath vanday tI puj va:nuk
I will offer you the blood but of the butcher’s shop.
To be kind at another’s expense.

ru:d penay cha: rab v>tha:n?
There is no mud, unless it has rained.
There is always a reason behind every dispute.

Sha-l xalith bat’hen lo-ri
To exercise meaningless efforts after losing an opportunity. Jackals were quite abundant in Kashmir and used to frequent barns for poultry. Being essentially nocturnal in their operations, they could not be easily distinguished from stacks of cowdung ( perhaps). So people chasing them away would often beat things that formed a silhouette similar to that of a jackal.
Sha-li’ ta-rakh ha-vin
To obtain favor by deceit, especially by convincing the donor of high returns that never materialize” In contemporary Kashmir History it would be analogous of showing “Rock Salt” to the people!

Sara-f ga’nzra-va-n dya-r ti’ atra-f ra-vra-va-n doh
To benefit from someone’s abuse. This phrase might have reference to labor exploitation!

Satai gaz a-sma-n gasun
To face a perilous situation
shAstaras chu shashtarIy tsaTa:n
The iron is cut only by iron.
Diamond cuts diamond.

sAndiji diva:n zA:l’ tI hendIvendI tsala:n ni:rith
Saving mustard seeds in hand, and a watermelon escapes.
Penny wise pound foolish.

sezi ongji chhunI g’av khasa:n
The ghee (clarified butter) cannot be taken out (of a pot) with a straight finger.
Certain things cannot vbe achieved unless force is used.
Crookedness also pays sometimes.

su:r mAlith tsu:rI jama:th
A gang of thieves in the garb of saints.
A fake saint. A quack.

s>nas m>l kanas tal.
The gold (an ornament made of gold) is precious when it is worn in the ear.

tatsar chu matsar
Anger is madness.

ta:bas chu la:b
The patience pays.
Slow and steady wins the race.

teli to:sh, yeli n>sh garI va:ti
Be glad only when the bride reaches home.
There is a slip between the cup and the lip.
Don’t count your chicken before they are hatched.

utIni bala:yi tut
One innocent person is punished in place of someone else.
One pays for someone else’s fault.
Justice miscarried.

Van chen ya-ren kh’oda-e sund sag ”
Nature has it’s own peculiar ways to maintain it’s balance. Sustenance of Kashmiri people during the present turmoil.
Va-v vuchhith ghasi na-v tra-vi’n ”
One should set sails with the tide. It is quite interesting to note the word “ghasi” in this saying. It dictates as to what should be done with t
Xu-nt’h vuchhith chhu xu-nt’h rang rat’a-n
To get influenced

Xochvaris manz a’nz ne-run
To get enormously benefited by the input of a simple effort
Xhopi’ chhae ropi’ si’nz, karekh hae ti’ soni’ sinz”
Silence is Silver Practicing it, is Gold.
yakur mA:rith athan phakh
After killing a yakur (a kind of bird), hands will stink.
A bad deed leaves a bad taste.

yath lachas ti carsIy
Let us have hashish for this Lakh as well.
A spendthrift does not have a second thought while spending money.

yas vAtsh nAr, tAm’ kheyi lukIhInz lAr
One who lifts an arm, does grab someone else’s house.

yi tse chuy v>ndas, ti chuy nI candas
Whatever is in your heart, it is not in your pocket.
One may be generous at heart, but may not be able to afford it.

yirIvIn’ na:v tI cirvun D>r
A boat adrift.
Disaster all around.

yi:t’ tsA:~g’ t’u:t ga:sh
As many lamps, as much illumination.
The more the merrier.

yeth’ kor to:bI, tiy a:v ro:bI
Whatever one didn’t want to do, one is forced to do the same.

yem’ von poz, tas kADIkh Ach
He who speaks the truth, his eye is gouged out.
Truth is bitter.

yem’ h’ot, su hot
The one who worries a lot, rots.
If you weep, your troubles heap.

yus phol su phol g>Day
Whatever has bloomed, has bloomed from the very bud.
Coming events cast their shadows before.

yus yuth a:si, tas t’uth ba:si
Everything appears of the same type as one would like it to be.

yusuy rochum tAs’ nish rachtam kh>da:yo:
May God save me from the one, whom I saved (or brought up).

yot ta:m dam, tot ta:m gam
Worries last as long as life lasts.

Yot ta-m poz pazi, tot ta-m a-lam dazi”
This phrase depicts a situation in which there are possibilities of a person being convicted from an aberrant verdict, stemming paradoxically from lack of evidence. It is easier to perceive error than to find truth, for the former lies on the surface and is easily seen, while the latter lies in the depth, where few are willing to search for it.

Yot ta-m ni’ ru-d peyi’, to ta-m vothi ni’ rab
Effect is incarcerated to Cause In our country. This proverb is usually pronounced regarding incidents manifesting an obvious effect but a suspect cause. Peculiar to our moral outlook, there is more disdain for the cause than the effect.